► In general, **a limit in the division of things and the dynamic role of the Whole for the
existence of individual things** (the Totality is connected permanently and simultaneously with its part. In this general thought is found the big
conundrum that should research in astrophysics.

► The existence of limits in changes (min and max) and first from all, in time.
More specifically, the existence of mathematical means and the physical
constants.

► The law of the conservation of energy (and the relative violation, since the
change and transfer of energy cannot happen without process of alleviation). Without stability of a complete Universe, the alleviation and transfer of
energy in material world would become **without timing,
as unlimitedly, also**. With the abstract law of conservation of energy, we withhold the relation between conservation of energy with flow
of time and the __contradiction__ that between the concept of conservation with endless time and change exists.

►
In the cosmological theory on a complete and always same Universe, we rationally think limits on a minimal and a maximum
time interval and respectively a minimal and longest distance. Also in this theory limits of all phenomena are result between which also **
the max limit in speed V**max, which is a combination of length
and time that are presented to motion. In physics, they
accepted the limit in the superior speed of motion Vmax = c as an axiomatic
proposition, without any explanation.

► The limit in division of things, limit in their most indirect connection and
identification of structural elements with instantaneous changes and exchanges of energy. In simpler reasons, the identification of matter with an
extreme rapidly repeated motion and with quantities of energy which are exchanged in smaller time intervals.

► The role and destination of matter (ie structural elements). The relation between
matter with " stabilized " changes in minimal time intervals and as stagnant waves (minimal moments in which the Universe begins relatively created from
the free space). Matter without a previous existence of a complex and constant reality could not have a certain structure and constant attributes,
neither possibility for creating __constant ways in
connection between particles__. *(The dynamic role of the Totality for the existence of
limited things again formulated with the most particular concepts of matter and free space)*.

► The most close relation of empty (free) space with the Universe that is not
materialized. The presence of empty space as a carrier for dynamic energy to material particles (to structural elements of material things).

► The existence of
same attributes and same matter in most distant areas, in all extent of space and time (since matter is connected with the same
space everywhere, with the same dynamic energy and periodically changes in same
minimal time intervals).

► The limit in the longest distance of displacement (finite space and longest
length), the curvature of space and in final analysis the isotropic property of the free space to material things (after the longest distance in the finite
space is the same for all and from any point of free space).

► The (minimal) curvature of the free space, the limit in displacement and return in start are
closely related with a limit of total energy that is allotted as free space (after space is not an absolute void). Consequently, the overall form
(without we take into consideration any deformities) is not an accidental form,
as also is not circular schema).

► The unlimited displacement in straight line is not possible nor for luminous waves
(light).

► If the fastest speed coincides with light (if Vmax = c) and if we regularly know a
minimal rate of acceleration according to the gravitational constant G,
then the first theoretical and exploratory calculations can begin
about a longest length and (correspondingly) a maximum time interval.

► The phenomenon of permanent transfer of energy __from and to__ material bodies by
wave way on the empty (free) space (with electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena). The isotropic transfer of energy since fluctuations become on the constant quantity of its energy. Comparatively, __
the main difference in phenomenon__ among motion of light (wave motion) and motion of material bodies in the space (in a dimension). Motion of
waves does not " obeys " in Newtonian logic for motion, since the presence of wave is owed at resisted of change and not in a lack of resistance.

► The minimal Plank's quantity
h=Emax/fmax for transfer of energy, the limit in the
highest frequency of electromagnetic waves (fmax) and the maximum
quantity of energy that can be transmitted with waves **in a unit of
time** (Emax/sec). The existence of a minimal time Tmin.

► Phenomena known from classic physics anticipated about the structure of matter, such as
are the oscillation, stagnant waves (and situations), timing, frequency,
phase, interference, amplification-weakening.

► The physical choice of circular and periodical motion and the repetition (and the role
of these) for the existence of constant material things and for
maintain common elements. While we would expect to find some minimal constant quantities of mass and an end in division of matter in the most
microscopic space, we discover the relation of stability with fast and circular motion. Matter without a previous
existence of a complex reality could not have a certain structure and
relatively stabilized presence.

► More specifically, with terms of mathematics: the existence many trigonometrical
relations as the role of radius and number pi, 45 and 90º degrees,
square root of number two √2, lengths that coincide with arcs, cos and
remaining other. In general, the close relation of constant limits in physical changes with periodical phenomena and furthermore with possibility things
are described mathematically. The predestinal role of time limits and limits of length in all physical activities. In the Maximum Total Time Is Exist a Complete Universe (Tuni),
while in
minimal possible time (Tmin) exists a " minimal " of the Universe. All individual things are exist and become between these common time and
length limits and more general, with constant specifications of
a common reality for all separated things / bodies.

► The phenomenon of
**opposite flow of waves**. Focused to the minimal distance and radial (like
gravity) and decentralizing (like electromagnetism).

► The phenomenon of gravitational force and its presence everywhere in the Universe. The
identity of gravitational force with centralized waves of energy. The phrase "curved space " is not the most reliable expression for science.

► The relation of weakening or amplification of waves (respectively electromagnetic or
gravitational) in agreement to reverse of the square of distance, given that distance in finite
space coincides with a radius and the region of circle (a conical schema) increases or is decreased corresponding to distance.

► The explanation and forecast of permanent phenomena as are the
heat and sound waves everywhere in the Universe, where matter is presented. The relation of these permanent phenomena with wave energy
of common free space. (The simplest movement of a material body causes
waves with the lower frequencies that can vibrate the molecules of matter and
produce the phenomenon of __sound__. The material __particles and heat__ (perceivable of a human) are presented at frequencies above 10^{15} Hz)

► The utmost speed of luminous and
gravitational waves, because these phenomena constitute wave changes of simultaneous
presence in one and same " empty " space, (that is to say fluctuations of an isotropic energy), where has
tendency to equilibrate its energy __in the minimum time__.

► The close relation between the energy of free space with the highest frequency of
transfer, with minimal inertia and with minimal lengths in waves. The
space appears as absence of energy because its energy is found in
balanced (stabilizing) situation. But it is a dynamic energy to the
structure of matter with wave oscillations and transmitted at frequencies higher than
the known electromagnetic spectrum (>10^{20} Hz).

► The relation of matter with instant loss of energy is caused by the most rapid
transfer of wave energy. The explanation for the presence of all particles
such as quantities of energy which are exchanged in particularly short time intervals. The dynamic relation of finite space with matter in most
microscopic dimensions.

► The explanation of all differences and attributes of material things __since the
initial difference in time interaction between structural elements__,
per time in which quantities of energy are exchanged and by their timing.
Confirmation of thought of many philosophers about existence of
one and unique substance behind the multitude of phenomena and their relations. The independence of the gravitational force from chemical composition.

► The phenomenon of " mass " with origin invisible wave phenomena (electromagnetic and
gravitational) and with a reduction of the highest frequency of energy exchange.
The close relation of components in matter with one and same quantity of energy, consequently dynamic relations between its particles.

► The relation of maintenance of particles with a reduction at the maximum frequency
in transfer of waves, in maximum speed of motion and increase of minimum wavelengths.

► The possibility of movement of material bodies with condition their own constant and immutable
existence, something that also has a limit…

► Limits in
physical sizes as are the speed of bodies, acceleration and force.

► In general, the existence of some permanent radiation of the free space, which is
connected with the shaping of structural elements by fluctuations of its energy, since entire material world permanently
maintains itself and is recreated by this shared energy (but without is determined if this radiation is the microwave radiation of background CMBR).

► The close relation of called nuclear force (also a curved space-time) with the minimal
length in which the structural elements are connected to the complete Universe and
since the maximum frequency fmax
in transfer of the structural waves.

►
The force that retains the particles with energy in to atomic nucleus __is not caused with separate way for each atom__ in matter and it is not
produced by microscopic movements of particles.

►
The strongest gravitational
force does not act from some direction, as if it emanated out of a material thing. The strongest
gravitational force is expressed by
an other mathematic constant (Gnuclear
potentially
somehow relevant to the quantity a_{max} ≈ 1,356 ×10^{50}
m/s^{2}).

►
The speed of light c expresses the limit in which acceleration can reaches and accordingly, the minimal and
maximum time interval in which acceleration can shifts.

Thus, slow acceleration needs a long time interval T in order to reaches in the speed c (**c**=**T**max
× **a**min), while the fast acceleration needs a short time
interval (**c**=**T**min × **a**max). The maximum rhythm of alteration in the speed of light **a**max
appertains with maximum gravitational force, that we call it " nuclear ".

Vmax
= c = amin
× Tmax
= amax
× Tmin

Vmax
= c = amin / fmin
= amax / fmax

► Still, from Newton's ratio a = F/m, but with a limit in
acceleration, we can understand easy that any force can't be applied for
infinite time interval and causes infinite acceleration.

► Theoretically, the constant speed of light c betrays __a strongest force F, which is strongest
in a minimal time interval and periodically and no continuously__.
Theoretically, it should exist some moments where the action is absent
(temporally empty or be lacking), when acceleration approaches at maximum speed of motion. Otherwise, acceleration never would stop and a maximum limit
to speed would not exist.

► The distance between material bodies, limit in the gravitational attraction and " deficit of mass "
also are comprehensibly.

► __The explanation of uncertainty__ in motion of particles in the structure of matter,
because quantities of energy, waves and
exchanged quantities of energy change at extreme minimal time intervals (and in minimal
lengths), which are shorter than time intervals that are required in order to information reaches in the instrument of our observation. From first
exploratory calculations, a minimal length λ_{min}
approaches indistinguishably to the elemental quantity h.

► Finally, the creation of material world as a relative phenomenon __that takes place
permanently in most microscopic dimensions and in minimal time intervals__
and no total creation and from straight line for the total of material
world.

► The relation of matter with the free space results from inseparable relation of
material world with world which is absent. And world where is absent participates dynamically in energy of material world through microscopic structure of matter
with the form of a finite space. It does not exist time, Universe and space without
matter, something which would mean a Universe without any change, without
quality and without indirect-exterior interactions. Similar as also,
does not exist a total time (a Maximum Period) without smaller time moments.

►
Attempting a jump: The " soul " exists and acts with the same way
selectively (that is to say, abstractively),
as the human intelligence creates language and carry each information with meanings. In other words... as the human thinking takes shape with
“abstraction” and choice of some “common elements” of things. The living being, appearance of soul in organized matter
(or biological body), creates a new
reality removing entire the Universe and living being receives as reality only what “ touch upon ” itself! The presence of inner and mental phenomena
and more widely, the phenomenon of life through microscopic structure of matter is presence of attributes in time and space which they __preexist in the
simultaneous and direct existence to the complete Universe__. The intelligence is not an accidental characteristics of life, neither one than a lot of
characteristics of life. This is what vaguely and was globally determined with ancient concepts " soul " or " spirit ", because human experience did not
reveals clearly how a multitude of animal events are result evolutionary of a fundamental precondition. This fundamental precondition, with terms of
science is the simultaneous connection of smaller segments to the Whole (full Universe), timing (or
synchronization) of
individual structural elements and continuous renewal of energy inside certain time
limits.

ISBN 978-960-93-2431-1

K. G. Nikoloudakis

AUG. 2009

Attention! Exist translational errors