A limit at frequency


Attention! Exist translational errors

©2009 ISBN 978-960-931414-5 | ©2010 ISBN 978-960-93-2431-1 | ©2012 ISBN 978-960-93-4040-3




Many clues are exist that a multitude of particular phenomena, where are observed in the structure of matter and which can be described with especial terminology, they constitute special cases of more general phenomena observed in daily experience. General phenomena, such as are motion, change of speed, time interval, length and angle, circular motion, frequency and rate etc.





www.kosmologia.gr ©2009-10

ISBN 978-960-93-2431-1


* Attention to the decimal point. This is a different mark for many countries

Circular motion, Electromagnetic energy and Speed


The speed c0 of light results from the equations of Maxwell which are include phenomena (μ0, ε0, z0) that belong in electromagnetism. In course of time, the electro­magnetism and motion of electron constituted a fascinating, precious and inexha­ustible field for research. A big field of science, technology and particularly physics are connected with the speed of light c and its relation with electro­magnetism. A creative brain can't to don't observe and don't succumb in the temptation to correlate some known formulas of physics for phenomena that belong in the electro­magnetism with formulas for phenomena that describe simple motions of big bodies.


Magnetic Penetrability of free space μ0 = ×10-7 Η/m = 12.566368 ×10-7 Henry /m

Dielectric Constant of free space ε0 = 1/36π 109 = 8.854 ×10-12 Farad /m

Characteristic resistance of free space z0 = √(μ00 ) = μ0 ·c ~ 377 Ohm

The speed of light in the free space is given from the relation c0 = 1/√(μ0 ε0)


Henry = Volt sec / Ampere = Ω sec (Resistance V/A)

Farad = Ampere sec / Volt = 1/Ω sec = Ω-1 sec (Conductance A/V)

Henry × Farad = sec2

Ohm = Volt / Ampere


c2 = 1 / μ0 ε0      c0 = 1 /√(μ0 ε0 )


(μ0 / ε0 ) = Ω = 120 π


From the relations c2 = 1/μ0 ε0  and  c = 1/√(μ0 ε0)  we find :

μ0 = 1 / c2 ε0  and  ε0 = 1 / c2 μ0


(μ0 / ε0 ) = √1.419254 ×105 = 376.7 Ω = μ0 c = 120π


μ0 c = 1/c ε0 = z0

μ0 c = RESISTANCE      |     ε0 c = CONDUCTANCE

(H /m) m/s = H / sec       |       (F/m) m/s = F/sec


Henry = Volt × sec / Ampere = Ω × sec (Resistance R=V/I)

Farad = Ampere × sec / Volt = 1/Ω × sec = Ω-1 sec (Conductance S=I/V)

Henry × Farad = sec2


1 Farad = 1 Coulomb / 1 Volt (C= Q/V)

1 Volt = 1 Joule / 1 Coulomb (V= P/I = IR)

1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb / sec (I= Q/t)

1 Coulomb = 1 Ampere × sec (Q= I t)

1 Ohm = 1 Volt / 1 Ampere (kg m2 s-3 A-2)



The magnetic penetrability μ0 and the dielectric constant ε0 are from the first phenomena which are presented in our visible world by motion in to space and which are connected with particular phenomena of microscopic space and exclusively in the structure of matter. The phenomenon of solid mass is presented by fast and alternating fluctuations in the trans­fer of wave energy, while in our visible world mass is appeared like a perfectly separate and self-existent phenomenon. Similar, the phenomena of electricity and magnetic field are presented, as if they do not have equivalence to phenomena of motion in material world. A potential comprehension of these phenomena (that mathematically receive the values of μ0 and ε0) with equivalent terms from motion of bodies, it will constitute a gate for the comprehension and for the cross-correlation of many other phenomena in the struc­ture of matter and about the relation between of physical forces.

It has become more than a suspicion, that certain of phenomena described in physics as irrelevantly and separately are intermediary situations or particular cases of most known phenomena, particularly of motion. We expect that between these phenomena are the dielectric constant of the free space ε0 = 8.8542 ×10-12 F/m and the magnetic penetrability μ0 = 12.56636 ×10-7 H /m, from which the fastest speed of electro­magnetic waves (c = 1 / √ ε0 μ0 ) results.

μ0 = 4π × 10-7 Η/m = 12.566368 ×10-7 Henry /m

ε0 = 1/36π 109 = 8.854 ×10-12 Fd /m

G = 6.6725 ×10-11  |  c = 2.997924 ×108 m/s  |   c G ≈ 0.02

zο = 120π = 376.9 Ω = √(μ0 / ε0) = √1.42 ×105

μ0 = 1.1209977 ×10-3

√ε0 = 2.9755671 ×10-6

The frequency fmax = 0.452444 ×1042 Hz is result from the magnetic penetrability μ0 =12.56636 ×10-7 Henry /m with the dielectric constant ε0= 8.854 × 10-12 Farad /m of the free space, when we consider that the Planck's constant h coincides with a fundamental length λmin = 6.62606 ×10-34 m and applying the relation Vc =1/ √μ0 ε0  and the fundamental relation for the co-ordination in electrotechnics T= 2π√L·C. In the formula T= 2π√L·C we consider the length  λmin = hbar :

L = μ0 λmin = 83.265508 ×10-41 Henry

C = ε0 λmin = 58.667135 ×10-46 Farad

T2 = (83.26550 ×10-41 ) (58.66713 ×10-46 )= 4884.95 ×10-87

(Henry × Farad = sec2 )

T = √4.88495 ×10-84 = 2.2102 ×10-42 sec 

f = 1/2.2102 ×10-42 = 0.45244 ×1042 Hz

Henry = z0 sec → sec = Henry/z0  Really 83.265508 ×10-41 / 376.9 = 2.21 ×10-42

Farad = sec /z0 → z0 =sec /Farad → sec=Farad × z0


1 From mathematic viewpoint, it is not error if we erase the unit of metre from the μ0 and ε0 with their multiplication on any quantity of length. If the μ0 and ε0 have respectively a unit Henry /m and Farad /m, when we multiply them with any quantity of length, then the metres are erased and remain units cleanly Henry and Farad. Here, we selected this quantity of length that we have consider as more likely, in order to we advance and find an exit in certain questions. Initially, we selected as quantity of length the number close to the constant h and testly the length Compton e) of the electron. If the numbers that we select to give them a unit coincide to numbers which have a dimensional content in other units, this coincidence does not prohibit mathematically we take these numbers as clean quantities, for the measurement of some other phenomena, with any unit we wish to do.

We use only the number and not their dimensional content. From view of physical phenomena,  objections can be placed. For example, if in the formula V = √(GM/r) we insert to the denominator the radius of the moon (for a radius r), while for mass to the numerator insert mass of the Earth, then mathematically the formula is correct and rightly results the units. However, we will find a speed that likely it does not express a real motion. Consequently, in here our case, with phenomena μ0 and ε0, from thought of physics some objections can to be placed, because the length -with which we multiply them, as is the λmin- is not determined for what and how it is in reference with lengths or surfaces, that would had as result the values of these phenomena.





Now, it is not privilege of few leading physicists to think about the Universe and its limits with terms of Science and with language of numbers. Whoever can thinks and searches theoretically with knowledge of medium education! Because the Universe has constant min and max limits... forever and everywhere.




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The minimum possible time and the energy 


Change in quantity of energy of the free space causes wave phenomena, because the transfer of energy does not happen in null time and finds some resistance (similar as an initial impulse in a stagnant quantity of water). How much of waves can goes through in the unit of time? The number of waves which is repeated can unlimitedly increases? If yes, then this would mean, that also time intervals that intervene from a wave up to next can minimize unlimitedly also accordingly, also a change that causes waves can happen in infinitely small time intervals or in null time. Moreover the unlimited increase of frequency would mean even infinite quantity of wave energy is transfer in a unit of time. Consequently, after exist a maximum limit in the number of waves and a minimal limit in time interval that these waves can be repeated, this limit means, that the highest frequency results from some change in the minimal possible time (or minimal period). The most slight possible time and the maximum rate of repetition of waves are related to the maximum marginal speed that we consider the speed of light (that is to say, the speed that these waves travel in to free space). The maximum limit in the number of waves per unit of time means still a maximum limit in the quantity of energy that can be transmitted with waves in a unit of time.

<•> The speed c remains constant at the creation of mass or for its maintenance and only the acceleration and deceleration change, that is to say, time in that the fastest speed Vc is acquired.

Vmax = c = amin × Tmax = amax × Tmin

Vmax = c = amin / fmin = amax / fmax


In the physical explanation of a complete universe already we have concluded a substantive connection between material carriers with a simultaneous quantity of energy, which is presented to the form of " empty " and finite space. Already we have concluded a close relation of nuclear force with dynamic connection that material things have in minimal distance of the space and with the total energy of the complete Universe. Already we have comprehended how the complete Universe is permanently present and participates in the presence of individual things in most microscopic dimensions. The research in microscopic dimensions is a research about the limits of the Universe. The existence of limits in the Universe and in certain physical activities would not be revealed by the research in microscopic dimensions, if the limits did not exist. They are exist limits to the Universe as roughly we have determined them and for this reason, we have the advantage to detect limits from observations in the most microscopic activities and not only if we travel in space.





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